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《全球价值链发展报告2021》线上发布会在京举行,世贸组织首席经济学家Robert Koopman盛赞本期报告

《全球价值链发展报告》由对外经济贸易大学全球价值链研究院主导、策划,并与世界贸易组织(WTO)、世界银行(World Bank)、经济合作与发展组织(OECD)、亚洲开发银行(ADB)、日本亚洲经济研究所(IDE-JETRO)、中国发展研究基金会等国内外组织机构共同撰写和出版。《全球价值链发展报告》是研究院的标志性成果之一,每两年发布一期。

1213日,对外经济贸易大学举办了第三期报告《全球价值链发展报告2021:超越制造》线上发布会。与会国内外知名专家不仅一致肯定本期报告的具体贡献,如无工厂制造商 (Factoryless manufacturers)、沿全球价值链的新型服务贸易、要素收入贸易Trade in Factor Income)等新的概念和理论,他们更注意到本系列报告在塑造有关开放、全球化和发展等重大议题的国际叙事和国际议程方面的影响和作用。

世界贸易组织首席经济学家Robert Koopman对《全球价值链发展报告》系列报告给予高度评价与肯定 (全文见文后附录)Koopman先生指出,2014年他刚到世界贸易组织任职时,许多世贸组织成员国对“全球价值链”这个概念心存疑虑,认为“全球价值链”是剥削发展中国家的一种手段,因而不愿意讨论全球价值链。而随着《全球价值链发展报告》的推出,以及大量关于全球价值链研究的出现(包括邢予青早期对iPhone增加值的研究) ,这一情况出现了变化。许多世贸组织成员国逐渐认识到,全球价值链是实现发展的新途径,通过参与全球价值链、满足外国的中间产品需求,可以实现价值链升级和经济发展。三期《全球价值链发展报告》的出版,使人们对于全球价值链有了更加正面的看法。这三期报告呈现了关于全球价值链的关键事实和证据,提供了重要的新知识和新见解,为政策讨论提供了材料,并正面塑造了有关开放、全球化和发展的叙事。现在,连印度这样从前对全球价值链心存疑虑的国家,也想知道如何融入全球价值链,如何实现沿价值链升级。本期报告第四章,就详细分析了印度参与服务业全球价值链的经验。

Koopman还重点提及了本期报告中的一些重要见解:与全球价值链相关的国际贸易政策与国内政策的联系 (如竞争政策、社会安全网);区域价值链与全球价值链的关系;从需求的角度看,美国仍是全球价值链的中心;更加平衡和平等的全球发展需要中国在全球价值链的需求侧扮演更重要角色。Koopman先生认为这些议题可以在未来的报告中进一步深入发展。

最后,Koopman先生还提到,现任世贸组织总干事Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala强调,世贸组织需要把事实、知识和见解提供给成员国,以帮助它们进行相关议题的辩论;Okonjo-Iweala对本期报告在这方面的出色贡献予以高度赞扬和肯定。Koopman先生重申,世界贸易组织将继续参与本系列报告的撰写和出版工作。

日本亚洲经济研究所(IDE-JETRO)高级研究员孟渤注意到,《全球价值链发展报告》已经成为一个品牌,如果在2000年左右在互联网上搜索 “全球价值链”,能找到的专业论文相当少,而现在“全球价值链” 已成为一个高频搜索词,并且能够找到大量的专业研究;《全球价值链发展报告》系列出版物一直处于搜索结果排名的前列,且有由非常高的引用率,因为“它可以给学界和政策制定者提供非常好的支持。

该系列报告迄今已发布三期。在最新发布的《全球价值链发展报告2021:超越制造》中,研究院海外学术院长邢予青教授担任主编,并撰写报告前言;本院研究人员共贡献了5篇背景论文,并作为第二章和第三章的作者(邢予青和黄绍鹏);与报告相关的成果也已发表在Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 等高影响因子的国际刊物上。第三期报告中文版的翻译和出版工作目前正在紧张筹划之中,预计将于2022年年中面世。

作为研究院标志性成果之一的《全球价值链发展报告》已经成为重要的国际公共产品,非常正面地塑造了国际上有关全球化和开放的叙事体系,积极推进了有利于中国发展的国际议程的设定,营造了有利于中国发展的国际 (学术) 舆论,扩大了我校在全球价值链研究领域的国际声誉,切实服务于国家发展战略,获得了非常显著和积极的国际和国内影响。


附录1

院研究人员贡献的背景论文

1. Multinational Enterprises and Value-Added Trade in Global Value Chains

Zhi Wang and Kunfu Zhu, University of International Business and Economics

2. Factoryless Manufactures and International Trade in the Age of GVCs

Yuqing Xing, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies and University of International Business and Economics

3. Value Captured by the PRC in the Smartphone GVC: A Tale of Three Smartphone Handsets

Yuqing Xing, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies and University of International Business and Economics; Shaopeng Huang, University of International Business and Economics

4. Plugging into Global Value Chains of the Services Industry: The Experiences of the Philippines

Laura B. Fermo, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas; Yuqing Xing, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies and University of International Business and Economics

5. Plugging into Global Value Chains of the Software Service Industry: The Experiences of India

Shaopeng Huang, University of International Business and Economics; Jai Asundi, Center for Study of Science, Technology, and Policy; Yuqing Xing, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies and University of International Business and Economics


院研究人员作为作者的章节。

第二章 全球价值链上的无形资产贸易与知识产权保护 (Yuqing Xing)

第三章 全球价值链中的生产率增长、创新和升级 (Yuqing Xing, Shaopeng Huang)


已在高影响因子国际刊物上发表的与报告有关的成果

Xing, Yuqing, and Shaopeng Huang. 2021. Value Captured by China in the Smartphone GVC: A Tale of Three Smartphone Handsets. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. 58. pp. 256–266.


附录2

Transcript

Remark by Bob Koopman, Chief Economist and Director of the Economic Research and Statistics Division at the World Trade Organization, at the Launch Webinar of “Global Value Chains Development Report 2021: Beyond Production”, Dec 13, 2020

Thank you very much, it is a pleasure to be here, and let me just say, to start, it was a great pleasure working with Yuqing, Elisabetta, Bo and Jiantuo to produce the report. It is quite a remarkable report.

My comments are really gonna be more context-setting, and thinking about the next report.

Well, I won't try to prescribe what the next report should include, I think, the context of the evolving world since we produced three reports over the past six years, I think it is very useful to reflect upon.

And the insights from this latest report have been, I think, very very important. So, what we see is, right now in the press, we see a lot discussions about supply chain disruptions, we hear about major debate on globalization, should we continue to globalize? should we de-globalize? BTW, there are a number of dimensions to this, there is geopolitical dimension, there is a sustainability dimension. There are a number of important aspects, that I think, we shouldn't dismiss very quickly, but we need to make sure that for this debate that's now going on, which is a very complex issue. These reports that we've been producing for the past six years, three different reports, bring new facts, new knowledge, and new evidence to help inform that debate.

My current boss Ngozi Okonjo, was extraordinarily pleased to receive this report, and one of the thing I have been hearing from her, since she joined the WTO in march, is the need that we as the WTO need to help bring facts, knowledge and insights to help inform members debate, and part of the reason why this resonate with me is because I've watched this debate around GVC that evolved at the WTO.

When I first arrived in 2014, many countries that were very skeptical of GVCs, and they saw GVCs as another way to sort of exploit developing countries, and they want to make sure that there was actually no discussion or debate coming in to the memberships around the role of GVCs.

By 2016, that it changed, so we had produced the report, we had done a number of reports out there on GVCs, big body of research, including Yuqing's early research on iPhone value-added, I think helped get many members to get their heads around this notion that there was a potentially new development process, and new way to approach development, and integrate, and tap into foreign demand, not necessarily final good demand, but intermediate demand in foreign countries that would then help them move up the value chain.

And I would have to say China has been a very leading example of this but it is also a leading example how that role can evolve, and you change from being a provider of, say, labor intensive low-skilled activities to higher-skilled, better income-earning activities.

So one big country that's changed its view is India. So, India for a number of years has been very skeptical about this kind of research, this kind of analysis. And tomorrow morning, I will give a presentation to a group from India, organized by their Ministry of Industry and their Coalition of Industries, where they want to hear about Global Value Chain and they want to hear how India can tap into global value chain and move up the value chain. And this report has a big section on services, and we already know India has been a pretty critical player in services value chain.

The notion of regional versus global value chain is also very important, and I think, doing a deeper exploration of why we see this concentration, I think we know why, but I think further evaluation of why regional value chain become a core element to moving into global value chain, I think it is very important. And why, because of Africa, and Africa's continental trade agreement, I think could provide a basis for Africa to do some regional integration, fragmenting regionally their production value chain participation and build up some momentum to becoming more of a player in global value chain.

But as Yuqing was saying, I think, near the end of his presentation, which is excellent, BTW, one need to have a broad policy approach, and it is a broad policy approach both around your international trade and your domestic policy environment. So for a country, I come from United States, one of the painful things for me, is watching a disconnect between US international trade policy and domestic policy, particularly over the 1990s and 2000s, where the US pursued a pretty aggressively international liberalization but really didn't pay much attention to what was happening to domestic policies and the need for a safety net to help with the adjustment, whether that was from trade, technological change, change in consumer preference, micro domestic, migration, you name it. There are a lot of reasons to make sure the domestic policy environment. And Yuqing, you mentioned there's a need particularly around things like winner-take-all and competition policy. I think it is very useful to think more tightly going forward about this kind of intersections between domestic policies and international policies.

Finally, you know that we notice that participation can vary. The demand and production view of global value chains participation, going back to earlier part of Yuqing's presentation, I think it's very very important. US policy still matters. It is still the center, the demand center, the external demand driver for much of global value chain development.

I think that plays an outside role in the domestic policy debate in United States. I think one of the things that would be most helpful here, is to see those bubbles for China grow bigger, and other country grow bigger on the demand side, not just have to be so dependent on US demand. That's not an excuse for the US to try to do domestic reshoring, which is much of discussion about, both in the US and EU, which I think are not well thought-out policies. But to the extent that demand center for GVC is more equitably or more balanced geographically globally, I think, we would say, would lay foundation for more equitable global economy going forward. What does this mean? I think, this means it is very important for country like China to remain open, to provide a growing source of external demand for developing countries, as a way to move up that value chain. That may be even more important if we see country like United States or European Union go backward and put policy in place that try to do more reshoring. I don't think works by the way. Well, evidence suggest that despite all the policy pronouncements for the past four five years, we've seen very little movement in that direction, there's been much diversification in global value chain. But, if they do continue to pursue that, there's gonna be a need for some other country to rise up and lift the other developing countries out there.

Finally, I will close on this remark, this will be my last global value chain report. I will be leaving the WTO next summer. It has been a great pleasure participating in this report, I can assure you that my colleagues in the economic research and statistics division at the WTO are committed to continued participation in this report. They've proven extraordinary valuable. And it has been a great pleasure for me to be able to help contribute in some small and indirect way to their valuable insights. So I can assure you that WTO's participation will continue, people like Victor Stolzenburg, Kathryn Lundquist and others will be anxiously looking forward to contribute to the next report. Let me close there. I am sorry but I will have to leave a bit early, but thank you for the opportunity and again, congratulations to the team. Thank you!